How NLP Text-Based Chatbots Work

Not all chatbots are created equal. Here’s your crash course on chatbot types and lingo.

What's in this article:

  • An introduction to the Artificial Intelligence (AI) sub-categories
  • An introduction to the different types of chatbots
  • An introduction to how intelligent chatbots work

If the word “chatbot” conjures memories of frustrating and unnatural conversations, worry not. The chatbots of today are sleek and sophisticated. In fact, with machine learning technology, they can even feel human.

These chatbots 2.0 not only provide a better user experience, they also help human agents by taking over repetitive and time consuming communications. This frees up the human agent to concentrate on those more complex cases that require human input. But how does this all work? Understanding how your NLP text-based chatbot operates will help you ensure it stays on track as it goes to serve your company.

>> Learn everything you need to know about chatbots in Ultimate Knowledge.

The Difference Between NLP, NLU, NLG, and NLI

There are several acronyms in the world of automation and AI that are relevant for understanding chatbots. Here are four key terms that you need to know:

NLP, or Natural Language Processing, is a branch of AI that helps computers read and understand natural human language. Its main goal is to improve human-machine communication.

>> Learn more about NLP here

NLU, or Natural Language Understanding, is a branch of NLP. It is all about machine reading comprehension and making sure the machine understands the text’s actual meaning. In more scientific terms, NLU takes place when the machine converts the user’s inputted data (what they’re saying) into a logical form that the computer's algorithms understand.

>> Learn more about using NLU to improve customer experience here


NLG, or Natural Language Generation, is another subset of NLP, which is essentially NLU in reverse: the machine generates a logical response which it then converts to a natural language response that a human reader can easily understand.


NLI, or Natural Language Interaction, another branch of NLP, refers to the communication that takes place between humans and machines—the process of translating from programming language to human language, and back again, like a very complex Google Translate for machines.

Rules-based chatbots: The Old School

The stilted, buggy chatbots of yesteryear are called rules-based chatbots. These bots don’t remember the previous interactions with your users because they are powered by a simple machine learning technique called pattern matching.

So, take this question, for example: “What is the price of your membership?”

This question can be matched with similar questions that will be asked by customers in the future. The rules-based chatbot is taught how to respond to these questions—but the wording must be an exact match. This means manually programming all the different ways to ask how much a membership costs, for every possible question a customer may ask, which is incredibly time-consuming.

That’s not to say this type of chatbot can’t be useful: if your company tends to get only a certain number of questions that are usually asked in just a few ways, then a simple rules-based chatbot is probably the way to go. But for many companies these days, this technology is not powerful enough to keep up with their customer queries.

NLP Powered Chatbots: The Next Generation

The new generation of chatbots are NLP-powered agents that get smarter each day. They carry information from one conversation to the next and learn as they go. Here are some of the most important elements of an NLP-powered chatbot:

Dialogue Management: This tracks the state of the conversation. The core components of dialogue management in chatbots include a context—saving and sharing data exchanged in the conversation—and session—one conversation from start to finish.

Human Handoff: This refers to the seamless communication and execution of a handoff from the chatbot to a human agent.

Business Logic Integration: It’s important that your chatbot has been programmed with your company’s unique business logic.

Rapid Iteration: You want your bot to be slick and easily programmable. Rapid iteration refers to the fastest route to the right solution.

Training and Iteration: To ensure your chatbot doesn’t go awry, it’s necessary to systematically train and send feedback to improve its understanding of customer intents using real-world conversation data being generated across channels.

Natural Language Processing: Your chatbot’s NLP works off the following keys: utterances (ways the user refers to a specific intent), intent (the meaning behind the words a user types), entity (details that are important to the intent like dates and locations), context (which helps to save and share parameters across a session), and session (one conversation from start to finish, even if interrupted).

Simplicity: To get the most out of your bot, you’ll want it to be set up as simply as possible, with all the functionality that you need—but no more than that. There is, of course, always the potential to upgrade or add new features as you need later on.

How intelligent chatbots work

Now it’s time to really get into the nitty-gritty of how today’s intelligent chatbots work. There are five major steps involved—tokenizing, normalizing, recognizing entities, dependency parsing, and generation—for the chatbot to read, interpret, understand, and formulate and send a response. Let’s take a closer look.

  1. Tokenizing: The chatbot starts by chopping up text into pieces (also called ‘tokens’) and removing punctuation.
  2. Normalizing: Next, the bot finds common misspellings, slang, or typos in the text and converts these to its “normal” version.
  3. Recognizing Entities: Now that the words are all normalized, the chatbot seeks to identify which type of thing is being referred to. For example, it would identify North America as a location, 67% as a percentage, and Google as an organization.
  4. Dependency Parsing: For the next step, the bot splits the sentence into nouns, verbs, objects, punctuation, and common phrases.
  5. Generation: Finally, the chatbot generates a number of responses using the information determined in all the other steps and selects the most appropriate response to send to the user.

Caring for your chatbot

One of the most impressive things about intelligent chatbots is that they get smarter with each interaction. However, in the beginning, machine learning chatbots are still in primary school and should be monitored carefully. NLP technology is prone to bias and error and can learn to speak in an offensive manner.

Now that you understand the inner workings of NLP, machine learning, and chatbots, you’re ready to build and deploy your new chatbot baby into the world. Allow her to stand at the front line of your customer service team, as your polite and clever representative.


 

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